Structural analysis of calmodulin binding to ion channels demonstrates the role of its plasticity in regulation

Pflugers Arch. 2013 Nov;465(11):1507-19. doi: 10.1007/s00424-013-1278-0. Epub 2013 Apr 23.


The Ca²⁺-binding protein calmodulin (CaM) is a well-known regulator of ion-channel activity. Consequently, the Protein Data Bank contains many structures of CaM in complex with different fragments of ion channels that together display a variety of binding modes. In addition to the canonical interaction, in which CaM engages its target with both its domains, many of the ion-channel-CaM complexes demonstrate alternative non-canonical binding modes that depend on the target and experimental conditions. Based on these findings, several mechanisms of ion-channel regulation by CaM have been proposed, all exploiting its plasticity and flexibility in interacting with its targets. In this review, we focus on complexes of CaM with either the voltage-gated calcium channels; the voltage-gated sodium channels or the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, for which both structural and functional data are available. For each channel, the functional relevance of these structural data and possible mechanism of calcium-dependent (in)activation and/or facilitation are discussed in detail.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Calcium Channels / metabolism*
  • Calmodulin / chemistry*
  • Calmodulin / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Potassium Channels / metabolism*
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Conformation


  • Calcium Channels
  • Calmodulin
  • Potassium Channels