Association of interleukin-1 beta (+3954) gene polymorphism and gingival crevicular fluid levels in patients with aggressive and chronic periodontitis

Genet Couns. 2013;24(1):21-35.


Background and objective: The immune mechanisms and genetic variations that regulate genetic expression, production and biological activity of IL-1beta, are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. The aims of the present study were to analyse interleukin (IL)-1beta (+3954) genotype and allele frequency in both chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients, and also to investigate whether this polymorphism is associated with gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) IL-1beta levels, periodontal disease severity and clinical parameters in subjects of Turkish origin.

Methods: A total of 147 individuals were enrolled in the study including 56 aggressive periodontitis (AP), 44 chronic periodontitis (CP) patients and 47 healthy controls (C). Single nucleotide polymorphism at IL-1beta (+3954) is analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). GCF samples were analyzed for IL-1beta, using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results: The distribution of genotypes and allele frequencies for IL-1beta (+3954) were similar among the groups, in spite of a trend toward a higher frequency of allele 2 in the patient groups. The genotype distribution and allele frequencies were also not different after stratification of subjects according to the clinical attachment level (CAL < 4 mm and CAL > 4mm). No differences were found between the GCF IL-1beta levels of the different genotypes. Allele 2 was associated with increased bleeding on probing (BOP) sites in chronic periodontitis patients.

Conclusion: The results of this study do not support that genetic polymorphism in the IL-1beta (+3954) could be identified as a susceptibility or severity factor in aggressive periodontitis, in the present population. The association of allele 2 frequency and higher percentage of BOP sites in chronic periodontitis suggest that IL-1beta (+3954) potentially play a significant but not major role in the clinical outcome.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aggressive Periodontitis / genetics*
  • Aggressive Periodontitis / metabolism
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Chronic Periodontitis / genetics*
  • Chronic Periodontitis / metabolism
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / methods
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency / genetics
  • Gingival Crevicular Fluid / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-1beta / genetics*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Periodontal Index
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods
  • Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics*
  • Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length / genetics
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Turkey
  • Young Adult


  • Interleukin-1beta