This paper examines motor vehicle traffic accident deaths and injuries to pedestrians and bicyclists (ICD-9 codes E813-E814) aged 0-14 years, by income quintile of area of residence. It is based on 92 deaths in urban Canada in 1981, 69 deaths in Montreal during the period 1979-1983, and 1,133 injuries which resulted in hospital care or police reports in Montreal in 1981. For injuries in Montreal, the pattern of socio-economic inequality in the annual incidence rates by quintile was very pronounced, completely regular and highly significant. The rate of injury to children living in the poorest neighbourhoods was four times that of children living in the least poor neighbourhoods. For both sexes, inequalities were much more pronounced for pedestrians compared to bicyclists. For deaths in Montreal and all of urban Canada, the inequality in the rates did not follow such a consistent pattern across the income quintiles, nor were the differences statistically significant in most cases, but the rates for each sex were consistently highest in the poorest income quintile. Socio-economic inequalities in the rates of death and injury were greater in girls than in boys. The results are discussed in the context of theories of etiology and strategies for prevention.