In 2009, we conducted a case-control study to explore the routes of HCV transmission in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in Cambodia. Cases were HCV/HIV co-infected patients (who tested RT-PCR positive for HCV-RNA or had confirmed presence of HCV antibodies) (n = 44). Controls were HIV mono-infected patients, with no HCV antibodies (n = 160). They were recruited among the PLHIV presenting at one national reference centre of HIV/AIDS. Multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with the co-infection were the age older than 50 years (OR 5.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.5-19.6), the exposure to multiple parenteral infusions before the year 2000 (OR 3.4, 95 % CI 1.5-7.6), to surgery (OR 2.6, 95 % CI 1.2-5.7) and to fibroscopy (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.0-5.7). These results show the need to implement HCV screening in PLHIV, to support the implementation of national infection control guidelines, and to reinforce public awareness on the risks linked to parenteral medications.