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. 2013 Apr 17;8(4):e60968.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060968. Print 2013.

Noninvasive Prenatal Molecular Karyotyping From Maternal Plasma

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Free PMC article

Noninvasive Prenatal Molecular Karyotyping From Maternal Plasma

Stephanie C Y Yu et al. PLoS One. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Fetal DNA is present in the plasma of pregnant women. Massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA has been used to detect fetal trisomies 21, 18, 13 and selected sex chromosomal aneuploidies noninvasively. Case reports describing the detection of fetal microdeletions from maternal plasma using massively parallel sequencing have been reported. However, these previous reports were either polymorphism-dependent or used statistical analyses which were confined to one or a small number of selected parts of the genome. In this report, we reported a procedure for performing noninvasive prenatal karyotyping at 3 Mb resolution across the whole genome through the massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA. This method has been used to analyze the plasma obtained from 6 cases. In three cases, fetal microdeletions have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In two cases, fetal microduplications have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In the remaining case, the plasma DNA sequencing result was consistent with the pregnant mother being a carrier of a microduplication. Simulation analyses were performed for determining the number of plasma DNA molecules that would need to be sequenced and aligned for enhancing the diagnostic resolution of noninvasive prenatal karyotyping to 2 Mb and 1 Mb. In conclusion, noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma by massively parallel sequencing is feasible and would enhance the diagnostic spectrum of noninvasive prenatal testing.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: Stephanie C.Y. Yu, Peiyong Jiang, K.C. Allen Chan, Y.M. Dennis Lo and Rossa W.K. Chiu have filed a United States patent application 61/751,213 “Noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma”. Y.M. Dennis Lo and Rossa W.K. Chiu are consultants to, receive research support from, and hold equities in Sequenom. This does not alter the authors′ adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. Circos plot of the detected copy number aberrations across the genome in maternal plasma.
From inside to outside: cases 01 to 06. Chromosome ideograms (outermost ring) are oriented pter to qter in a clockwise direction. Each bar represents a 1-Mb window. Regions with three or more consecutive 1-Mb bins of increased or reduced representation in plasma are indicated by green and red bars, respectively. Red arrows highlight the approximate chromosomal locations on these aberrant regions.
Figure 2
Figure 2. Copy number aberrations detected in maternal plasma.
The chromosome(s) showing copy number aberrations for each case is shown. (A) Cases 01 to 04; (B) case 05; and (C) case 06. The genomic position is shown on the x-axis and the z-score is plotted on the y-axis. Each vertical bar represents a 1-Mb bin. Regions with three or more consecutive 1-Mb bins of increased or reduced representation in plasma are indicated by green and red bars, respectively.
Figure 3
Figure 3. Diagnostic sensitivity for the detection of a 3 Mb microdeletion/microduplication.
The diagnostic sensitivity for detecting the aberration is plotted against the fetal DNA percentage. The computer simulation analysis was performed assuming that a total of 150 million plasma DNA molecules were analyzed.

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References

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Grant support

This work was supported by University Grants Committee of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, under the Areas of Excellence Scheme (AoE/M-04/06); Hong Kong Research Grants Council General Research Fund (CUHK 463710); Sponsored Research Agreement from Sequenom Inc. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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