Secondary prevention of osteoporotic fractures--an "OPTIMAL" model of care from Singapore

Osteoporos Int. 2013 Nov;24(11):2809-17. doi: 10.1007/s00198-013-2368-8. Epub 2013 Apr 25.


A significant care gap exists in the management of osteoporotic fractures. Osteoporosis Patient Targeted and Integrated Management for Active Living (OPTIMAL) is a secondary fracture prevention program instituted in the public hospitals of Singapore. We aim to describe the operational characteristics of OPTIMAL and initial audit data of patients who were recruited into the program at Singapore General Hospital.

Introduction: Fractures often represent the first opportunity for care of osteoporosis. However, a significant care gap still exists in the management of these sentinel events and underdiagnosis and undertreatment of osteoporotic fractures are prevalent worldwide. Fracture liaison services run by care coordinators have been shown to reduce the fracture care gap. OPTIMAL is a clinician champion-driven, case manager-run secondary fracture prevention program set up in the public hospitals of Singapore in 2008.

Methods: We present the operational characteristics and initial audit data of OPTIMAL from the largest tertiary teaching hospital in Singapore.

Results: One thousand and fourteen patients have been recruited into OPTIMAL at our hospital since 2008, and 476 patients are currently in active follow-up. Two hundred and eighty-seven patients had completed a 2-year follow-up at the hospital as of August 2012 and were evaluated; 97.5% of these patients had DXA evaluation upon enrollment into the program, and 62% of the patients reported compliance with an exercise program over the 2-year follow-up. Compliance to osteoporosis medications as estimated by the medication possession ratio (MPR) was 72.8 ± 34.5% at 2 years with patients maintaining good compliance (MPR ≥ 80%) for an average of 20.2 months (95% CI 19.3-21.1).

Conclusion: Our report provides the first compelling evidence of the potential success of a secondary fracture prevention program from an Asian country. The ultimate success of the program will be determined by fracture outcomes and cost effectiveness, but in the interim, clear evidence of enhanced assessment and treatment rates has been demonstrated.

MeSH terms

  • Absorptiometry, Photon / statistics & numerical data
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use
  • Case Management / organization & administration
  • Drug Utilization / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Health Services Research / methods
  • Hospitals, Public / organization & administration
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Medical Audit
  • Medication Adherence / statistics & numerical data
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Organizational*
  • Osteoporosis / diagnosis
  • Osteoporosis / drug therapy
  • Osteoporotic Fractures / prevention & control*
  • Program Evaluation
  • Secondary Prevention / organization & administration*
  • Singapore


  • Bone Density Conservation Agents