Environmental fungicides and triazole resistance in Aspergillus

Pest Manag Sci. 2014 Feb;70(2):173-8. doi: 10.1002/ps.3567. Epub 2013 Dec 5.


Fungal diseases are problematic in both human health and agriculture. Treatment options are limited and resistance may emerge. The relatively recent recognition of triazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus has prompted questioning of the origin of resistance. While multiple mechanisms are described in clinical isolates from triazole-treated patients, some de novo resistance is also recognised, especially attributable to TR34 /L98H. Such strains probably arose in the environment, and, indeed, multiple studies have now demonstrated TR(34) /L98H triazole resistance strains of A. fumigatus from soil. Docking and other in vitro studies are consistent with environmental resistance induction through exposure to certain triazole fungicides, notably difenoconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, bromuconazole and tebuconazole. This article addresses the potential implications of this issue for both human health and food security.

Keywords: Aspergillus fumigatus; fungicide; resistance; triazole.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antifungal Agents / metabolism
  • Antifungal Agents / pharmacology*
  • Aspergillus fumigatus / drug effects*
  • Aspergillus fumigatus / enzymology
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / chemistry
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism
  • Drug Resistance, Fungal / drug effects*
  • Environment*
  • Food Supply
  • Fungal Proteins / chemistry
  • Fungal Proteins / metabolism
  • Fungicides, Industrial / metabolism
  • Fungicides, Industrial / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Molecular Docking Simulation
  • Protein Conformation
  • Triazoles / metabolism
  • Triazoles / pharmacology*


  • Antifungal Agents
  • Fungal Proteins
  • Fungicides, Industrial
  • Triazoles
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • cytochrome P-450 CYP51A, Aspergillus