Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2013 Jun;143(6):788-94.
doi: 10.3945/jn.112.170993. Epub 2013 Apr 24.

Acute Consumption of Walnuts and Walnut Components Differentially Affect Postprandial Lipemia, Endothelial Function, Oxidative Stress, and Cholesterol Efflux in Humans With Mild Hypercholesterolemia

Affiliations
Free PMC article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Acute Consumption of Walnuts and Walnut Components Differentially Affect Postprandial Lipemia, Endothelial Function, Oxidative Stress, and Cholesterol Efflux in Humans With Mild Hypercholesterolemia

Claire E Berryman et al. J Nutr. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Walnut consumption improves cardiovascular disease risk; however, to our knowledge, the contribution of individual walnut components has not been assessed. This study evaluated the acute consumption of whole walnuts (85 g), separated nut skins (5.6 g), de-fatted nutmeat (34 g), and nut oil (51 g) on postprandial lipemia, endothelial function, and oxidative stress. Cholesterol efflux (ex vivo) was assessed in the whole walnut treatment only. A randomized, 4-period, crossover trial was conducted in healthy overweight and obese adults (n = 15) with moderate hypercholesterolemia. There was a treatment × time point interaction for triglycerides (P < 0.01) and increased postprandial concentrations were observed for the oil and whole walnut treatments (P < 0.01). Walnut skins decreased the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) compared with baseline (P = 0.02) such that a difference persisted between the skin and oil treatments (P = 0.01). The Framingham RHI was maintained with the oil treatment compared with the skins and whole nut (P < 0.05). There was a treatment effect for the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) (P < 0.01), and mean FRAP was greater with the oil and skin treatments compared with the nutmeat (P < 0.01). Cholesterol efflux increased by 3.3% following whole walnut consumption in J774 cells cultured with postprandial serum compared with fasting baseline (P = 0.02). Walnut oil favorably affected endothelial function and whole walnuts increased cholesterol efflux. These 2 novel mechanisms may explain in part the cardiovascular benefits of walnuts.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00938340.

Conflict of interest statement

Author disclosures: C. E. Berryman, J. A. Grieger, S. G. West, C-Y. O. Chen, G. H. Rothblat and S. Sankaranarayanan, no conflicts of interest. P.M. Kris-Etherton and J.B. Blumberg are members of the Scientific Advisory Council for the California Walnut Board.

Figures

FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1
Change in serum concentrations of TG after consumption of each test meal in healthy overweight and obese men and women. Values are least squares means ± SEMs, n = 15. Post hoc analyses at individual time points were conducted using the Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons. *Compared with oil; compared with whole nut, P < 0.05.
FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2
Free cholesterol efflux was increased in cells cultured with postmeal serum relative to fasting baseline serum. Values are least squares means ± SEMs, n = 15. *Different from 0 min, P < 0.05.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 28 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

Publication types

MeSH terms

Associated data

Feedback