Fungal siderophore biosynthesis is partially localized in peroxisomes

Mol Microbiol. 2013 Jun;88(5):862-75. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12225. Epub 2013 Apr 26.


Siderophores play a central role in iron metabolism and virulence of most fungi. Both Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus nidulans excrete the siderophore triacetylfusarinine C (TAFC) for iron acquisition. In A. fumigatus, green fluorescence protein-tagging revealed peroxisomal localization of the TAFC biosynthetic enzymes SidI (mevalonyl-CoA ligase), SidH (mevalonyl-CoA hydratase) and SidF (anhydromevalonyl-CoA transferase), while elimination of the peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS) impaired both, peroxisomal SidH-targeting and TAFC biosynthesis. The analysis of A. nidulans mutants deficient in peroxisomal biogenesis, ATP import or protein import revealed that cytosolic mislocalization of one or two but, interestingly, not all three enzymes impairs TAFC production during iron starvation. The PTS motifs are conserved in fungal orthologues of SidF, SidH and SidI. In agreement with the evolutionary conservation of the partial peroxisomal compartmentalization of fungal siderophore biosynthesis, the SidI orthologue of coprogen-type siderophore-producing Neurospora crassa was confirmed to be peroxisomal. Taken together, this study identified and characterized a novel, evolutionary conserved metabolic function of peroxisomes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aspergillus fumigatus / enzymology*
  • Aspergillus fumigatus / genetics
  • Aspergillus nidulans / enzymology*
  • Aspergillus nidulans / genetics
  • Conserved Sequence
  • Ferric Compounds / metabolism*
  • Hydroxamic Acids / metabolism*
  • Metabolic Networks and Pathways / genetics
  • Neurospora crassa / enzymology
  • Neurospora crassa / genetics
  • Peroxisomes / metabolism*
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Siderophores / metabolism*


  • Ferric Compounds
  • Hydroxamic Acids
  • Siderophores
  • N,N',N''-triacetylfusarinine C