The effect of growth media and physical treatments on the adhesion properties of canine probiotics

J Appl Microbiol. 2013 Aug;115(2):539-45. doi: 10.1111/jam.12235. Epub 2013 May 21.


Aims: The manufacturing processes have been reported to influence the properties of probiotics with potential impact on health properties. The aim was to investigate the effect of different growth media and inactivation methods on the properties of canine-originated probiotic bacteria alone and in combination mixture.

Methods and results: Three established dog probiotics, Lactobacillus fermentum VET9A, Lactobacillus plantarum VET14A and Lactobacillus rhamnosus VET16A, and their combination mixture were evaluated for their adhesion to dog mucus. The effect of different growth media, one reflecting laboratory and the other manufacturing conditions, and inactivation methods (95°C, 80°C and UV irradiation) on the mucus adhesion of the probiotic strains was characterized. Evaluation of dog probiotics was supported by cell visualization using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Higher adhesion percentage was reported for probiotic strains growing in laboratory rather than in manufacturing conditions (P < 0.05). Inactivation by heat (95°C, 80°C) decreased the adhesion properties when strains were cultivated in soy-based growth media compared with those grown in MRS broth (P < 0.05). TEM observations uncovered differences in cell-surface components in nonviable forms of probiotic strains as compared with their viable forms.

Conclusions: Manufacturing process conditions such as growth media and pretreatment methods may significantly affect the adhesive ability of the tested strains.

Significance and impact of the study: Growth conditions, growth media, pretreatment methods and different probiotic combinations should be carefully considered for quality control of existing probiotics and for identification of new probiotics for dogs. These may also have an impact on health benefits for the host.

Keywords: Lactobacillus; adhesion; canine; growth media; microscopy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacterial Adhesion*
  • Culture Media
  • Dogs / microbiology*
  • Lactobacillus / physiology*
  • Lactobacillus fermentum / growth & development
  • Lactobacillus fermentum / physiology
  • Lactobacillus plantarum / growth & development
  • Lactobacillus plantarum / physiology
  • Lactobacillus rhamnosus / growth & development
  • Lactobacillus rhamnosus / physiology
  • Mucus / microbiology
  • Probiotics*


  • Culture Media