Effects of chronic carbosulfan exposure on liver antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013 Jul;36(1):80-7. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2013.03.022. Epub 2013 Apr 6.


Catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx) activities in liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 116.88±21.69g) were evaluated after exposing fish to sublethal concentrations (25μg/L) of carbosulfan in flow-through tanks for 60 days. During the experiment activities of CAT, SOD, GST, and Se-GPx and histopathological effects were determined once a week and once at the end of the 21 days of recovery period. All enzymes were affected by carbosulfan when compared to control fish. Fish had intracellular oedema, cell necrosis, pycnotic nucleus, and increase of sinusoidal space in the liver. After 21 days of the recovery period, all enzyme activities had returned to control levels and fish had no histological lesions in liver. Therefore all the changes observed during exposure were reversible. Results indicate that the liver CAT, SOD and GST enzymes are highly sensitive to carbosulfan as their activities altered significantly, suggesting they could be useful in predicting sublethal pesticide toxicity and useful as an indicator for assessment of pesticides in contaminated water.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Carbamates / toxicity*
  • Catalase / metabolism
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Glutathione Transferase / metabolism
  • Liver / drug effects*
  • Liver / enzymology
  • Oncorhynchus mykiss
  • Pesticides / toxicity*
  • Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism
  • Toxicity Tests, Chronic
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / toxicity*


  • Carbamates
  • Pesticides
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • Catalase
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • carbosulfan