Different photochemical events of a genetically encoded phenyl azide define and modulate GFP fluorescence

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2013 Jun 3;52(23):5974-7. doi: 10.1002/anie.201301490. Epub 2013 Apr 25.


Expanding the genetic code opens new avenues to modulate protein function in real time. By genetically incorporating photoreactive phenyl azide, the fluorescent properties of green fluorescent protein (GFP) can be modulated by light. Depending on the residue in GFP programmed to incorporate the phenyl azide, different effects on function and photochemical pathways are observed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Azides / chemistry*
  • Fluorescence
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins / chemistry
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins / genetics*
  • Photochemistry
  • Protein Engineering


  • Azides
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins