Recurrent well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma

Oral Oncol. 2013 Jul;49(7):689-94. doi: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2013.03.434. Epub 2013 Apr 25.


The incidence of Well-differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (WDTC) has been increasing over the past several decades. Consequently, so has the incidence of recurrence, which ranges from 15% to 30%. Factors leading to increased risk of recurrence are well described. However, the impact of local and regional recurrence is not well understood, but distant recurrence dramatically reduces 10-year survival to 50%. Recurrent WDTC has several established options for treatment; Observation, Radioactive Iodine (RAI), Surgery and External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT). Novel treatments such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and percutaneous ultrasound-guided ethanol injection (PUEI) are beginning to gain popularity and have promising early results. A review of the current literature, outcome measurements and a strategy for revision surgery within the central neck compartment are discussed within this manuscript.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cell Differentiation*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Recurrence
  • Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery