MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have become one of the hottest topics in biology over recent years, but remarkably have only been formally recognized for just over 10 years. These endogenously produced short (19-24 nt) non-coding RNAs have introduced an entirely new paradigm in our understanding of gene control and it is now evident that miRNAs play a crucial regulatory role in many, if not all, physiological and pathological processes. In this review we provide an overview of the role and potential clinical utility for miRNAs in hematological malignancies and their function in normal hematopoiesis. Although still in its infancy, the miRNA field has already added much to our understanding of hematological processes, and provides us with novel tools as both biomarkers and therapeutic agents for hematological malignancies.
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