Aims/hypothesis: Monogenic diabetes (MD) might be misdiagnosed as type 1 diabetes. The prevalence of MD among children with apparent type 1 diabetes has not been established. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of common forms of MD in childhood diabetes.
Methods: We investigated 2,756 children aged 0-14 years with newly diagnosed diabetes who had been recruited to the nationwide population-based Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry (NCDR), from July 2002 to March 2012. Completeness of ascertainment was 91%. Children diagnosed with diabetes who were under12 months of age were screened for mutations in KCNJ11, ABCC8 and INS. Children without GAD and protein tyrosine phosphatase-like protein antibodies were screened in two ways. Those who had a parent with diabetes were screened for mutations in HNF1A, HNF4A, INS and MT-TL1. Children with HbA1c <7.5% (<58 mmol/mol) and no insulin requirement were screened for mutations in GCK. Finally, we searched the Norwegian MODY Registry for children with genetically verified MD.
Results: We identified 15 children harbouring a mutation in HNF1A, nine with one in GCK, four with one in KCNJ11, one child with a mutation in INS and none with a mutation in MT-TL1. The minimum prevalence of MD in the NCDR was therefore 1.1%. By searching the Norwegian MODY Registry, we found 24 children with glucokinase-MODY, 15 of whom were not present in the NCDR. We estimated the minimum prevalence of MD among Norwegian children to be 3.1/100,000.
Conclusions/interpretation: This is the first prevalence study of the common forms of MD in a nationwide, population-based registry of childhood diabetes. We found that 1.1% of patients in the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry had MD.