Chronic myeloid malignancies are categorized to the three main categories myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) and MDS/MPN overlap. So far, no specific genetic alteration profiles have been identified in the MDS/MPN overlap category. Recent studies identified mutations in SET-binding protein 1 (SETBP1) as novel marker in myeloid malignancies, especially in atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML) and related diseases. We analyzed SETBP1 in 1 130 patients with MPN and MDS/MPN overlap and found mutation frequencies of 3.8% and 9.4%, respectively. In particular, there was a high frequency of SETBP1 mutation in aCML (19/60; 31.7%) and MDS/MPN unclassifiable (MDS/MPN, U; 20/240; 9.3%). SETBP1 mutated (SETBP1mut) patients showed significantly higher white blood cell counts and lower platelet counts and hemoglobin levels than SETBP1 wild-type patients. Cytomorphologic evaluation revealed a more dysplastic phenotype in SETBP1mut cases as compared with wild-type cases. We confirm a significant association of SETBP1mut with -7 and isochromosome i(17)(q10). Moreover, SETBP1mut were strongly associated with ASXL1 and CBL mutations (P<0.001 for both) and were mutually exclusive of JAK2 and TET2 mutations. In conclusion, SETBP1mut add an important new diagnostic marker for MDS/MPN and in particular for aCML.