Calcium and vitamin d requirements of enterally fed preterm infants

Pediatrics. 2013 May;131(5):e1676-83. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-0420. Epub 2013 Apr 29.


Bone health is a critical concern in managing preterm infants. Key nutrients of importance are calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus. Although human milk is critical for the health of preterm infants, it is low in these nutrients relative to the needs of the infants during growth. Strategies should be in place to fortify human milk for preterm infants with birth weight <1800 to 2000 g and to ensure adequate mineral intake during hospitalization and after hospital discharge. Biochemical monitoring of very low birth weight infants should be performed during their hospitalization. Vitamin D should be provided at 200 to 400 IU/day both during hospitalization and after discharge from the hospital. Infants with radiologic evidence of rickets should have efforts made to maximize calcium and phosphorus intake by using available commercial products and, if needed, direct supplementation with these minerals.

Keywords: calcium; human milk; nutrient intake; phosphorous; preterm infants; vitamin D.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Calcium, Dietary / administration & dosage*
  • Child Development / physiology
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Enteral Nutrition / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature*
  • Infant, Small for Gestational Age
  • Infant, Very Low Birth Weight
  • Male
  • Nutritional Requirements
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic*
  • Prognosis
  • Societies, Medical
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States
  • Vitamin D / administration & dosage*


  • Calcium, Dietary
  • Vitamin D