Supplementation by thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal decreases feelings of hunger, elevates CCK levels and prevents postprandial hypoglycaemia in overweight women

Appetite. 2013 Sep;68:118-23. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2013.04.022. Epub 2013 Apr 28.


Thylakoids are chlorophyll-containing membranes in chloroplasts that have been isolated from green leaves. It has been previously shown that thylakoids supplemented with a high-fat meal can affect cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, insulin and blood lipids in humans, and can act to suppress food intake and prevent body weight gain in rodents. This study investigates the addition of thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal and its effects upon hunger motivation and fullness, and the levels of glucose, insulin, CCK, ghrelin and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in overweight women. Twenty moderately overweight female subjects received test meals on three different occasions; two thylakoid enriched and one control, separated by 1 week. The test meals consisted of a high carbohydrate Swedish breakfast, with or without addition of thylakoids. Blood samples and VAS-questionnaires were evaluated over a 4-h period. Addition of thylakoids suppressed hunger motivation and increased secretion of CCK from 180 min, and prevented postprandial hypoglycaemia from 90 min following food intake. These effects indicate that thylakoids may intensify signals of satiety. This study therefore suggests that the dietary addition of thylakoids could aid efforts to reduce food intake and prevent compensational eating later in the day, which may help to reduce body weight over time.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / drug effects
  • Cholecystokinin / blood*
  • Cholecystokinin / drug effects
  • Diet / methods
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / blood
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Female
  • Ghrelin / blood
  • Ghrelin / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Hunger / drug effects*
  • Hunger / physiology
  • Hypoglycemia / blood
  • Hypoglycemia / complications
  • Hypoglycemia / prevention & control*
  • Insulin / blood
  • Middle Aged
  • Overweight / blood*
  • Overweight / complications
  • Postprandial Period / drug effects
  • Postprandial Period / physiology
  • Satiation / drug effects
  • Satiation / physiology
  • Satiety Response / drug effects
  • Satiety Response / physiology
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Thylakoids*
  • Time Factors
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / drug effects


  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Ghrelin
  • Insulin
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Cholecystokinin