The virulence and immunogenicity of a wild-type respiratory syncytial (RS) virus together with four temperature sensitive (ts) mutants derived from this isolate were tested by intranasal inoculation into adult volunteers. Resistance to challenge correlated with neutralizing antibody titres in nasal secretions and to a lesser extent in serum. All ts mutants were reduced in virulence. Mutant ts1B caused mild or asymptomatic infections yet induced antibody responses comparable with wild-type RS virus. Ts1B might be developed further to produce a live-virus vaccine.