[Botulinum toxin: the misguided path]

Hautarzt. 2013 Jun;64(6):410-3. doi: 10.1007/s00105-012-2493-x.
[Article in German]


Botulinum toxin is widely used and has become a popular mass phenomenon in aesthetic medicine. Considerable scientific data concerning the biopsychosocial impact of botulinum toxin use have become available. The bidirectional interaction of mimic and emotion, described as the facial feedback hypothesis, is particularly influenced, as is mimicry. Furthermore, botulinum toxin can cause dysfunction of face harmony including false laughing or the "frozen face". As a result, complex psychosocial disturbances can occur and may affect social interaction and cause flattening of affect. Thus one must ask whether in the future botulinum toxin will continue to be employed in aesthetic dermatology or perhaps be regarded as a misguided path.

Publication types

  • English Abstract

MeSH terms

  • Botulinum Toxins / adverse effects*
  • Botulinum Toxins / therapeutic use*
  • Emotions / drug effects
  • Facial Muscles / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Mental Disorders / chemically induced*
  • Mental Disorders / prevention & control
  • Mental Disorders / psychology*
  • Paresis / chemically induced*
  • Paresis / prevention & control
  • Paresis / psychology*
  • Skin Aging / drug effects
  • Treatment Failure


  • Botulinum Toxins