Quantitative assessment of cardiac mechanical synchrony using equilibrium radionuclide angiography

J Nucl Cardiol. 2013 Jun;20(3):415-25. doi: 10.1007/s12350-013-9705-3. Epub 2013 Apr 30.


Background: Data on normal parameters of cardiac mechanical synchrony is limited, variable and obtained from small cohorts till date. In most studies, software used for such assessment has not been mentioned. The aim of study is to establish normal values of mechanical synchrony with equilibrium radionuclide angiography (ERNA) in a larger population using commercially available software.

Methods: We retrospectively analysed ERNA studies of 108 patients having low pretest likelihood of coronary artery disease, no known history of cardiac disease, normal electrocardiogram and whose ERNA studies were considered normal by experienced observers. In addition, ten patients diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and having LVEF ≤ 40% underwent ERNA. Fourier first harmonic analysis of phase images was used to quantify synchrony parameters using commercially available software (XT-ERNA). Intraventricular synchrony for each ventricle was measured as the standard deviation of the LV and RV mean phase angles (SD LVmPA and SD RVmPA, respectively). Interventricular synchrony was measured as LV-RVmPA. Absolute interventricular delay was calculated as absolute difference between LV and RVmPA (without considering ± sign). All variables were expressed in milliseconds (ms) and degree (°). Intra-observer and inter-observer variabilities were assessed. Cut-off values for parameters were calculated from the normal database, and validated against patient group.

Results: On phase analysis, LVmPA was observed to be 343 ± 48.5 milliseconds (174.7° ± 18.5°), SD LVmPA was 16.3 ± 5.4 milliseconds (8.2° ± 2.5°), RVmPA was 339 ± 50.4 milliseconds (171.8° ± 18.5°) and SD RVmPA was 37.3 ± 15.7 milliseconds (18.7° ± 7.2°). LV-RVmPA was observed to be 3.9 ± 21.7 milliseconds (2.9° ± 9.6°) and absolute interventricular delay was 16.3 ± 14.8 milliseconds (7.9° ± 6.1°). The cut-off values for the presence of dyssynchrony were estimated as SD LVmPA > 27.1 milliseconds (>13.2°), SD RVmPA > 68.7 milliseconds (>33.1°) and LV-RVmPA > 47.3 milliseconds (>22.1°). There was no statistically significant intra-observer or inter-observer variability. Using these cut offs, 9 patients with DCM showed the presence of left intraventricular dyssynchrony, 5 had right intraventricular dyssynchrony and 2 had interventricular dyssynchrony.

Conclusions: ERNA phase analysis offers an objective and reproducible tool to quantify cardiac mechanical synchrony using commercially available software and can be used in routine clinical practice to assess mechanical dyssynchrony.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cardiomyopathy, Dilated / diagnosis
  • Cardiomyopathy, Dilated / diagnostic imaging*
  • Female
  • Fourier Analysis
  • Gated Blood-Pool Imaging / methods*
  • Heart Ventricles / diagnostic imaging*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Observer Variation
  • Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Software
  • Technetium
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / diagnosis
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / diagnostic imaging*
  • Young Adult


  • Technetium