Dengue virus is a major human pathogen that has four serotypes (DENV1 to -4). Here we report the cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of immature and mature DENV1 at 6- and 4.5-Å resolution, respectively. The subnanometer-resolution maps allow accurate placement of all of the surface proteins. Although the immature and mature viruses showed vastly different surface protein organizations, the envelope protein transmembrane (E-TM) regions remain in similar positions. The pivotal role of the E-TM regions leads to the identification of the start and end positions of all surface proteins during maturation.