Genome-wide analysis of the GH3 family in apple (Malus × domestica)

BMC Genomics. 2013 May 2;14:297. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-14-297.


Background: Auxin plays important roles in hormone crosstalk and the plant's stress response. The auxin-responsive Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3) gene family maintains hormonal homeostasis by conjugating excess indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acids (JAs) to amino acids during hormone- and stress-related signaling pathways. With the sequencing of the apple (Malus × domestica) genome completed, it is possible to carry out genomic studies on GH3 genes to indentify candidates with roles in abiotic/biotic stress responses.

Results: Malus sieversii Roem., an apple rootstock with strong drought tolerance and the ancestral species of cultivated apple species, was used as the experimental material. Following genome-wide computational and experimental identification of MdGH3 genes, we showed that MdGH3s were differentially expressed in the leaves and roots of M. sieversii and that some of these genes were significantly induced after various phytohormone and abiotic stress treatments. Given the role of GH3 in the negative feedback regulation of free IAA concentration, we examined whether phytohormones and abiotic stresses could alter the endogenous auxin level. By analyzing the GUS activity of DR5::GUS-transformed Arabidopsis seedlings, we showed that ABA, SA, salt, and cold treatments suppressed the auxin response. These findings suggest that other phytohormones and abiotic stress factors might alter endogenous auxin levels.

Conclusion: Previous studies showed that GH3 genes regulate hormonal homeostasis. Our study indicated that some GH3 genes were significantly induced in M. sieversii after various phytohormone and abiotic stress treatments, and that ABA, SA, salt, and cold treatments reduce the endogenous level of axuin. Taken together, this study provides evidence that GH3 genes play important roles in the crosstalk between auxin, other phytohormones, and the abiotic stress response by maintaining auxin homeostasis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / metabolism
  • Cyclopentanes / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant / drug effects
  • Genome, Plant / genetics
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Glucuronidase / genetics
  • Glucuronidase / metabolism*
  • Indoleacetic Acids / metabolism*
  • Indoleacetic Acids / pharmacology
  • Malus / genetics*
  • Malus / metabolism
  • Oxylipins / metabolism
  • Phylogeny
  • Plant Growth Regulators / genetics
  • Plant Leaves / metabolism
  • Plant Roots / metabolism
  • Plants, Genetically Modified
  • Salicylic Acid / metabolism
  • Stress, Physiological / physiology


  • Cyclopentanes
  • Indoleacetic Acids
  • Oxylipins
  • Plant Growth Regulators
  • jasmonic acid
  • indoleacetic acid
  • Glucuronidase
  • Salicylic Acid