Early recognition and treatment of pediatric shock, regardless of cause, decreases mortality and improves outcome. In addition to the conventional parameters (eg, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, urine output, and central venous pressure), biomarkers and noninvasive methods of measuring cardiac output are available to monitor and treat shock. This article emphasizes how fluid resuscitation is the cornerstone of shock resuscitation, although the choice and amount of fluid may vary based on the cause of shock. Other emerging treatments for shock (ie, temperature control, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation/ventricular assist devices) are also discussed.
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