Prevalence of Rh, Duffy, Kell, Kidd & MNSs blood group antigens in the Indian blood donor population

Indian J Med Res. 2013 Mar;137(3):521-6.


Background & objectives: Little data are available regarding the frequencies of the blood group antigens other than ABO and RhD in the Indian population. Knowledge of the antigen frequencies is important to assess risk of antibody formation and to guide the probability of finding antigen-negative donor blood, which is especially useful when blood is required for a patient who has multiple red cell alloantibodies. This study was carried out to determine the frequencies of the D, C, c, E, e, K, k, Fy(a), Fy(b), Jk(a), Jk(b), M, N, S and s antigens in over 3,000 blood donors.

Methods: Samples from randomly selected blood donors from Delhi and nearby areas (both voluntary and replacement) were collected for extended antigen typing during the period January 2009 to January 2010. Antigens were typed via automated testing on the Galileo instrument using commercial antisera.

Results: A total of 3073 blood samples from donors were phenotyped. The prevalence of these antigens was found to be as follows in %: D: 93.6, C: 87, c: 58, E: 20, e: 98, K: 3.5, k: 99.97, F(a) : 87.4, Fy(b) : 57.6, Jk(a) : 81.5, Jk(b) : 67.4, M: 88.7, N: 65.4, S: 54.8 and s: 88.7.

Interpretation & conclusions: This study found the prevalence of the typed antigens among Indian blood donors to be statistically different to those in the Caucasian, Black and Chinese populations, but more similar to Caucasians than to the other racial groups.

MeSH terms

  • ABO Blood-Group System / genetics
  • ABO Blood-Group System / isolation & purification
  • Blood Donors*
  • Blood Group Antigens / genetics*
  • Blood Group Antigens / isolation & purification
  • Duffy Blood-Group System / genetics
  • Duffy Blood-Group System / isolation & purification
  • Gene Frequency
  • Humans
  • India
  • Kell Blood-Group System / genetics
  • Kell Blood-Group System / isolation & purification
  • Kidd Blood-Group System / genetics
  • Kidd Blood-Group System / isolation & purification
  • MNSs Blood-Group System / genetics
  • MNSs Blood-Group System / isolation & purification
  • Population / genetics*
  • Rh-Hr Blood-Group System / genetics
  • Rh-Hr Blood-Group System / isolation & purification


  • ABO Blood-Group System
  • Blood Group Antigens
  • Duffy Blood-Group System
  • Kell Blood-Group System
  • Kidd Blood-Group System
  • MNSs Blood-Group System
  • Rh-Hr Blood-Group System