Effects of extrusion, infrared and microwave processing on Maillard reaction products and phenolic compounds in soybean

J Sci Food Agric. 2014 Jan 15;94(1):45-51. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.6210. Epub 2013 Jun 7.


Background: The Maillard reaction indicators furosine, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), acrylamide and color were determined to evaluate heat effects induced during extrusion, infrared and microwave heating of soybean. In addition, the present paper aimed to study changes in the phenolic compounds, as well as in the overall antioxidant properties of different soybean products in relation to heating at 45-140 °C during the processes.

Results: Soybean proteins were highly sensible to Maillard reaction and furosine was rapidly formed under slight heating conditions during extrusion and infrared heating. Microwave heating at lower temperatures for a longer time yielded lower acrylamide levels in the final soybean products, as a result of its partial degradation. However, during infrared heating, acrylamide formation greatly increased with decreasing moisture content. After a short time of extrusion and infrared heating at 140 °C and microwave heating at 135 °C for 5 min, concentrations of HMF increased to 11.34, 26.21 and 34.97 µg g(-1), respectively.

Conclusion: The heating conditions caused formation of acrylamide, HMF and furosine in high concentration. The results indicate that the complex structure of soybeans provides protection of phenolic compounds from thermal degradation, and that Maillard reaction products improved the antioxidant properties of heat-treated soybean.

Keywords: Maillard reaction products; antioxidant capacity; heat processing; phenolic compounds; soybean.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acrylamide / analysis
  • Antioxidants / analysis
  • Color
  • Flavonoids / analysis
  • Food Handling / methods*
  • Furaldehyde / analogs & derivatives
  • Furaldehyde / analysis
  • Hot Temperature*
  • Infrared Rays
  • Lysine / analogs & derivatives
  • Lysine / analysis
  • Maillard Reaction*
  • Microwaves
  • Phenols / analysis*
  • Seeds / chemistry
  • Soybean Proteins / chemistry
  • Soybeans / chemistry*


  • Antioxidants
  • Flavonoids
  • Phenols
  • Soybean Proteins
  • furosine
  • Acrylamide
  • 5-hydroxymethylfurfural
  • Furaldehyde
  • Lysine