Static and dynamic repairs of facial nerve injuries

Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2013 May;25(2):303-12. doi: 10.1016/j.coms.2013.02.002.


The patient with facial paralysis presents a daunting challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. A thorough evaluation is key in directing the surgeon to the appropriate treatment methods. Aggressive and immediate exploration with primary repair of the facial nerve continues to be the standard of care for traumatic transection of the facial nerve. Secondary repair using dynamic techniques is preferred over static procedures, because the outcomes have proved to be superior. However, patients should be counseled that facial movement and symmetry are difficult to mimic and none of the procedures described is able to restore all of the complex vectors and overall balance of facial movement and expression.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Electrodiagnosis
  • Eyelids / surgery
  • Facial Expression
  • Facial Nerve / surgery*
  • Facial Nerve Injuries / complications
  • Facial Nerve Injuries / diagnosis
  • Facial Nerve Injuries / surgery*
  • Facial Paralysis / etiology
  • Facial Paralysis / surgery*
  • Free Tissue Flaps
  • Humans
  • Masseter Muscle / transplantation
  • Nerve Transfer / methods*
  • Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods*
  • Temporal Muscle / transplantation