Current anti-vascular endothelial growth factor dosing regimens: benefits and burden

Ophthalmology. 2013 May;120(5 Suppl):S3-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.01.057.


Topic: To examine the outcomes of clinical trials and case studies that investigated the different dosing regimens used for the 3 intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors that are available currently. The Comparisons of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Treatments Trial (CATT) data are discussed briefly here and are reviewed in greater detail in a separate accompanying article.

Clinical relevance: Sustained improvement with the 2 most widely used anti-VEGF drugs, bevacizumab and ranibizumab, requires monthly visits, posing a difficulty for patients. Thus, there is a need to evaluate whether individualized treatment regimens may reduce patient burden and improve patient outcomes.

Methods: Review of clinical trials and case studies presented at recent medical conferences and published in peer-reviewed literature.

Results: Numerous trials, including the Efficacy and Safety of Ranibizumab in Patients with Subfoveal Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV) Secondary to AMD, Prospective Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Patients with Neovascular AMD Treated with Intraocular Ranibizumab, Study of Ranibizumab in Patients with Subfoveal CNV Secondary to AMD, Extension Study to Evaluate the Safety and Tolerability of Ranibizumab in Subjects with CNV Secondary to AMD or Macular Edema Secondary to Retinal Vein Occlusion, Safety Assessment of Intravitreal Lucentis for AMD, and CATT, have evaluated alternatives to monthly dosing. Evidence suggests that either a treat-as-needed or, possibly, a treat-and-extend regimen provides a reasonable approach to monthly injections recommended for bevacizumab and ranibizumab, with the caveat that as yet, careful and ongoing surveillance remains a key feature of optical management.

Conclusions: Individualization of antiangiogenic treatment using data from clinical trials evaluating various dosing regimens against the patient's disease, lifestyle, and economic restrictions continues to evolve.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage*
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized / administration & dosage
  • Bevacizumab
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Cost of Illness
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Humans
  • Macular Degeneration / drug therapy*
  • Ranibizumab
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors / antagonists & inhibitors*


  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Bevacizumab
  • Ranibizumab