Risk factors for mild cognitive impairment among Mexican Americans

Alzheimers Dement. 2013 Nov;9(6):622-631.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2012.12.007. Epub 2013 May 2.


Background: Although a great deal of literature has focused on risk factors for mild cognitive impairment (MCI), little published work examines risk for MCI among Mexican Americans.

Methods: Data from 1628 participants (non-Hispanic n = 1002; Mexican American n = 626) were analyzed from two ongoing studies of cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease, Project FRONTIER (Facing Rural Obstacles to health Now Through Intervention, Education & Research) and TARCC (Texas Alzheimer's Research & Care Consortium).

Results: When looking at the full cohorts (non-Hispanic and Mexican American), age, education, Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 status and gender were consistently related to MCI diagnosis across the two cohorts. However, when split by ethnicity, advancing age was the only significant risk factor for MCI among Mexican Americans across both cohorts.

Conclusions: The current data suggest that many of the previously established risk factors for MCI among non-Hispanic cohorts may not be predictive of MCI among Mexican Americans and point to the need for additional work aimed at understanding factors related to cognitive aging among this underserved segment of the population.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; Cognition; Cross-cultural; Ethnicity; Mexican American; Mild cognitive impairment; Risk factors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Apolipoproteins E / genetics
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / epidemiology*
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / ethnology*
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / genetics
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mexican Americans / statistics & numerical data*
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Texas / epidemiology
  • White People


  • Apolipoproteins E