Objectives: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was developed as a promising new therapy for inoperable and surgical high-risk patients as an alternative to traditional aortic valve replacement. After a successful procedure, prognosis may mainly be determined by comorbidities. However, no appropriate risk score to predict long-term outcome following TAVI is currently available. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of adverse short- and long-term outcomes.
Methods: This is a two-centre registry study including a total of 426 TAVI procedures (274 transfemoral [TF] and 152 transapical [TA]) performed at the University Hospital and CardioVascular Center of Frankfurt (Germany) between 2005 and 2011.
Results: Observed 30-day mortality was 4.8% among TF and 12.6% among TA patients (hazard ratio [HR] TF vs TA was 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.19-0.77). Patients with a higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score experienced a 6% elevation in the 30-day mortality per point (HR 1.06; 95% CI 1.03-1.10), whereas the predictive value of the logistic EuroSCORE (HR 1.03; 95% CI 1.01-1.05) and EuroSCORE 2 (HR 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.07) was slightly lower. Most interestingly, older age (>80 years) and the access type were predictors of 30-day mortality. However, the only independent predictor of long-term mortality in a 30-day landmark analysis was the STS score (HR 1.05; 95% CI 1.02-1.09).
Conclusions: The STS score outperforms the logistic EuroSCORE in predicting adverse outcomes following TAVI. The transapical approach is associated with higher perioperative mortality, but does not exert any influence on long-term prognosis beyond the periprocedural phase.
Keywords: Apical; Femoral; Long-term outcome; STS score; Transcatheter aortic valve implantation.