Effects of cigarette smoke inhalation and coffee consumption on bone formation and osseous integration of hydroxyapatite implant

Braz J Biol. 2013 Feb;73(1):173-7. doi: 10.1590/s1519-69842013000100018.


The present study aims to assess the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation and/or coffee consumption on bone formation and osseous integration of a dense hydroxyapatite (DHA) implant in rats. For this study, 20 male rats were divided into four groups (n = 5): CT (control) group, CE (coffee) group, CI (cigarette) group and CC (coffee + cigarette) group. During 16 weeks, animals in the CI group were exposed to cigarette smoke inhalation equivalent to 6 cigarettes per day; specimens in the CE group drank coffee as liquid diet; and rats in the CC group were submitted to both substances. In the 6th week a 5 mm slit in the parietal bone and a 4 mm slit in the tibia were performed on the left side: the former was left open while the latter received a DHA implant. As soon as surgeries were finished, the animals returned to their original protocols and after 10 weeks of exposure they were euthanised (ethically sacrificed) and the mentioned bones collected for histological processing. Data showed that exposure to cigarette smoke inhalation and coffee consumption did not interfere in weight gain and that solid and liquid diet consumption was satisfactory. Rats in the CC group showed a decrease in bone neoformation around the tibial DHA implant (31.8 ± 2.8) as well as in bone formation in the parietal slit (28.6 ± 2.2). On their own, cigarette smoke inhalation or coffee consumption also led to diminished bone neoformation around the implant and delayed the bone repair process in relation to the CT group. However, reduction in the bone repair process was accentuated with exposure to both cigarette smoke inhalation and coffee consumption in this study.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Substitutes*
  • Coffee / adverse effects*
  • Durapatite*
  • Implants, Experimental
  • Inhalation
  • Male
  • Osseointegration*
  • Osteogenesis / drug effects*
  • Parietal Bone / pathology
  • Parietal Bone / surgery
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Tibia / pathology
  • Tibia / surgery
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects*


  • Bone Substitutes
  • Coffee
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution
  • Durapatite