Lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) is a benign proliferative disease of cervical glands. Although histological resemblance of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) to LEGH and frequent association of LEGH with MDA have been reported, it still remains unclear whether LEGH is a precancerous lesion of MDA. The present study was undertaken to examine the pathogenetic relationship between LEGH and MDA using a clonality analysis and mutational analyses of the STK11 gene, of which mutations have been reported in MDA. Of nine cases of LEGH only, four were polyclonal and five were monoclonal in composition. Of six LEGH lesions associated with MDA or adenocarcinoma, two were polyclonal and four were monoclonal. In cases of MDA or adenocarcinoma coexisting with LEGH, the patterns of X chromosome inactivation in malignant lesions were identical to those in coexisting LEGH lesions. A mutation of STK11 was only identified in one MDA, but not in LEGH. These results indicate that a subset of LEGH may be a precursor to malignant tumors including MDA and that a mutation of STK11 may be involved in progression of LEGH to MDA.