Purpose: Most patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and genetic rearrangements involving the core binding factor (CBF) have favorable prognosis. In contrast, a minority of them still have a high risk of leukemia recurrence. This study investigated the adverse features of CBF AML that could justify investigational therapeutic approaches.
Patients and methods: One hundred and fifty patients (median age 42 yr, range 16-69) with CBF AML (RUNX1-RUNX1T1 n = 74; CBFB-MYH11 n = 76) were prospectively enrolled into two consecutive CETLAM protocols at 19 Spanish institutions. Main clinic and biologic parameters were analyzed in the whole series. In non-selected cases with available DNA samples, the impact of molecular characterization and minimal residual disease (MRD) was also studied.
Results: Overall, complete remission (CR) rate was 89% (94% in ≤50 yr old and 72% in >50 yr, P = 0.002). At 5 yr, cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) was 26 ± 1%, disease-free survival (DFS) 62 ± 6%, and overall survival (OS) 66 ± 4%. In multivariate analyses, leukocyte count above 20 × 10(9) /L, BAALC over-expression, and high copy numbers of RUNX1-RUNXT1 or CBFB-MYH11 after induction chemotherapy (CT) led to increased relapse rate. Regarding OS, age >50 yr, leukocyte count above 20 × 10(9) /L, and increased MN1 expression were adverse features.
Conclusion: Age, leukocyte counts, BAALC, and MN1 gene expressions as well as high copy numbers of RUNX1-RUNXT1 or CBFB-MYH11 after induction chemotherapy are useful tools to predict the outcome and should be considered for risk-adapted therapy.
Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia; biologic and molecular prognostic factors; core binding factors.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.