Recently, various micro(mi)RNAs have been found deregulated in the setting of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but their role in the pathogenesis of this disease remains a matter of debate. In the meanwhile, increasing evidence indicates a defective function of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in RA. This review discusses relevant studies addressing the function of Tregs and Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 in RA, provides recent data on the role of miRNAs for Tregs homeostasis, and focuses on the role of miR-155 in Tregs. In a final perspective section we discuss the potential impact of therapeutic miR-155 modulation in RA.
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