Distribution of major xanthones in the pericarp, aril, and yellow gum of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana linn.) fruit and their contribution to antioxidative activity

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2013;77(5):984-7. doi: 10.1271/bbb.120931. Epub 2013 May 7.


Xanthone compounds in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) fruit have been reported to have biological activities including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and the major xanthone compounds in mangosteen are α-mangostin and γ-mangostin. The objectives of this research were to quantify and qualify the major xanthones in each part of the mangosteen fruit with and without yellow gum from the point of view of effective utilization of agricultural product. Quantitative evaluation revealed that yellow gum had extremely high amounts of α-mangostin and γ-mangostin (382.2 and 144.9 mg/g on a wet basis, respectively) followed by pericarp and aril. In mangosteen fruit with yellow gum inside, xanthones seemed to have shifted from the pericarp and to have concentrated in a gum on the surface of aril, and there was almost no difference between the amounts of α-mangostin and γ-mangostin in whole fruits with and without yellow gum. Pericarp and yellow gum showed much higher radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant potential than the aril.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / isolation & purification
  • Antioxidants / metabolism*
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Fruit / anatomy & histology*
  • Fruit / metabolism*
  • Garcinia mangostana / metabolism*
  • Xanthones / isolation & purification
  • Xanthones / metabolism*
  • Xanthones / pharmacology*


  • Antioxidants
  • Xanthones