New and Emerging Disease-Modifying Therapies for Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: What is New and What is to Come

J Cent Nerv Syst Dis. 2012 May 16;4:81-103. doi: 10.4137/JCNSD.S6692. Print 2012.

Abstract

The therapeutic landscape for multiple sclerosis (MS) is rapidly changing. Currently, there are eight FDA approved disease modifying therapies for MS including: IFN-β-1a (Avonex, Rebif), IFN-β-1b (Betaseron, Extavia), glatiramer acetate (Copaxone), mitoxantrone (Novantrone), natalizumab (Tysabri), and fingolimod (Gilenya). This review will highlight the experience to date and key clinical trials of the newest FDA approved agents, natalizumab and fingolimod. It will also review available efficacy and safety data on several promising therapies under active investigation including four monoclonal antibody therapies: alemtuzumab, daclizumab, ocrelizumab and ofatumumab and three oral agents: BG12, laquinimod, and teriflunomide. To conclude, we will discuss where each of these new therapies may best fit into treatment algorithms.

Keywords: BG12; alemtuzumab; daclizumab; fingolimod; laquinimod, and teriflunomide; multiple sclerosis; natalizumab; ocrelizumab; ofatumumab; treatment.