The gut microbiota suppresses insulin-mediated fat accumulation via the short-chain fatty acid receptor GPR43

Nat Commun. 2013;4:1829. doi: 10.1038/ncomms2852.

Abstract

The gut microbiota affects nutrient acquisition and energy regulation of the host, and can influence the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. During feeding, gut microbes produce short-chain fatty acids, which are important energy sources for the host. Here we show that the short-chain fatty acid receptor GPR43 links the metabolic activity of the gut microbiota with host body energy homoeostasis. We demonstrate that GPR43-deficient mice are obese on a normal diet, whereas mice overexpressing GPR43 specifically in adipose tissue remain lean even when fed a high-fat diet. Raised under germ-free conditions or after treatment with antibiotics, both types of mice have a normal phenotype. We further show that short-chain fatty acid-mediated activation of GPR43 suppresses insulin signalling in adipocytes, which inhibits fat accumulation in adipose tissue and promotes the metabolism of unincorporated lipids and glucose in other tissues. These findings establish GPR43 as a sensor for excessive dietary energy, thereby controlling body energy utilization while maintaining metabolic homoeostasis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue, White / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Fatty Acids, Volatile / metabolism*
  • GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go / metabolism
  • GTP-Binding Protein beta Subunits / metabolism
  • GTP-Binding Protein gamma Subunits / metabolism
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / microbiology*
  • Insulin / metabolism*
  • Lipid Metabolism*
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Liver / pathology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Microbiota*
  • Models, Biological
  • Muscles / metabolism
  • Muscles / pathology
  • Obesity / metabolism
  • Obesity / pathology
  • Organ Specificity
  • PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism
  • Protein Kinase C / metabolism
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / deficiency
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction
  • Thinness / metabolism
  • Thinness / pathology
  • Type C Phospholipases / metabolism

Substances

  • Fatty Acids, Volatile
  • Ffar2 protein, mouse
  • GTP-Binding Protein beta Subunits
  • GTP-Binding Protein gamma Subunits
  • Insulin
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled
  • Protein Kinase C
  • PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • Pten protein, mouse
  • Type C Phospholipases
  • GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go