Interleukin-22 binding protein (IL-22BP) is constitutively expressed by a subset of conventional dendritic cells and is strongly induced by retinoic acid

Mucosal Immunol. 2014 Jan;7(1):101-13. doi: 10.1038/mi.2013.28. Epub 2013 May 8.


Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is mainly produced at barrier surfaces by T cells and innate lymphoid cells and is crucial to maintain epithelial integrity. However, dysregulated IL-22 action leads to deleterious inflammation and is involved in diseases such as psoriasis, intestinal inflammation, and cancer. IL-22 binding protein (IL-22BP) is a soluble inhibitory IL-22 receptor and may represent a crucial regulator of IL-22. We show both in rats and mice that, in the steady state, the main source of IL-22BP is constituted by a subset of conventional dendritic cells (DCs) in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues. In mouse intestine, IL-22BP was specifically expressed in lamina propria CD103(+)CD11b(+) DC. In humans, IL-22BP was expressed in immature monocyte-derived DC and strongly induced by retinoic acid but dramatically reduced upon maturation. Our data suggest that a subset of immature DCs may actively participate in the regulation of IL-22 activity in the gut by producing high levels of IL-22BP.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • CD4 Antigens / metabolism
  • Cell Differentiation / immunology
  • Dendritic Cells / cytology
  • Dendritic Cells / drug effects
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology*
  • Dendritic Cells / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism
  • Intestines / immunology
  • Male
  • Monocytes / cytology
  • Monocytes / immunology
  • Monocytes / metabolism
  • Organ Specificity / genetics
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Rats
  • Receptors, Interleukin / genetics*
  • Receptors, Interleukin / metabolism
  • Spleen / cytology
  • Spleen / immunology
  • Spleen / metabolism
  • Tretinoin / pharmacology*


  • CD4 Antigens
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Receptors, Interleukin
  • interleukin-22 receptor
  • Tretinoin