Aims and objectives: To evaluate structured patient assessment frameworks' impact on patient care.
Background: Accurate patient assessment is imperative to determine the status and needs of the patient and the delivery of appropriate patient care. Nurses must be highly skilled in conducting timely and accurate patient assessments to overcome environmental obstacles and deliver quality and safe patient care. A structured approach to patient assessment is widely accepted in everyday clinical practice, yet little is known about the impact structured patient assessment frameworks have on patient care.
Design: Integrative review.
Methods: An electronic database search was conducted using Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, PubMed and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. The reference sections of textbooks and journal articles on patient assessment were manually searched for further studies. A comprehensive peer review screening process was undertaken. Research studies were selected that evaluated the impact structured patient assessment frameworks have on patient care. Studies were included if frameworks were designed for use by paramedics, nurses or medical practitioners working in prehospital or acute in-hospital settings.
Results: Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. There were no studies that evaluate the impact of a generic nursing assessment framework on patient care. The use of a structured patient assessment framework improved clinician performance of patient assessment. Limited evidence was found to support other aspects of patient care including documentation, communication, care implementation, patient and clinician satisfaction, and patient outcomes.
Conclusion: Structured patient assessment frameworks enhance clinician performance of patient assessment and hold the potential to improve patient care and outcomes; however, further research is required to address these evidence gaps, particularly in nursing.
Relevance to clinical practice: Acute care clinicians should consider using structured patient assessment frameworks in clinical practice to enhance their performance of patient assessment.
Keywords: frameworks; history taking; nursing assessment; patient assessment; patient outcomes; physical examination.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.