Anti-CTLA4 antibody therapy related complications on FDG PET/CT

Clin Nucl Med. 2014 Jan;39(1):e93-6. doi: 10.1097/RLU.0b013e318292a775.


Anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 monoclonal antibody therapy is a new class of drug which has demonstrated increased overall survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. Anti-CTLA-4 antibody therapy inhibits the CTLA-4 inhibitory signal, thereby enhancing the anti-tumor response of the cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This response can lead to a variety of immune-related adverse events. Many of these events are present on follow-up PET/CT examinations performed to assess response to therapy. It is important for the interpreting physician to be aware of the findings on PET/CT to avoid diagnosing adverse events as progressive disease and to alert clinicians regarding these complications.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects*
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology*
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use
  • CTLA-4 Antigen / immunology*
  • Fluorodeoxyglucose F18*
  • Humans
  • Melanoma / diagnostic imaging
  • Melanoma / pathology
  • Melanoma / therapy
  • Multimodal Imaging*
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Positron-Emission Tomography*
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed*


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • CTLA-4 Antigen
  • Fluorodeoxyglucose F18