Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasias and bilateral legg-calvé-perthes disease: diagnostic considerations for mucopolysaccharidoses

JIMD Rep. 2013;11:125-32. doi: 10.1007/8904_2013_231. Epub 2013 May 9.


Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI, Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome, MIM 253200 ) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by decreased activity of arylsulfatase B (N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase) enzyme resulting in dermatan sulfate accumulation; mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA, Morquio syndrome A, MIM 253000 ) by decreased activity of N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfatase enzyme resulting in accumulation of keratan sulfate. Clinical symptoms include coarse facial features, joint stiffness, hepatosplenomegaly, hip osteonecrosis, and dysostosis multiplex. MPS IVA symptoms are similar but with joint hypermobility.With suspicion of MPS disease, clinicians request urine studies for quantitative and qualitative glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Diagnosis is confirmed by decreased enzyme activity in leukocytes or cultured skin fibroblasts. Further confirmation is obtained with identification of two mutations in the ARSB gene for MPS VI or mutations in the GALNS gene for MPS IVA.We report slowly progressing patients, one with MPS VI and two with MPS IVA, who presented with skeletal changes and hip findings resembling Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease or spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia and normal/near normal urine GAG levels. The urine analysis data presented suggest that present screening techniques for MPS are inadequate in milder patients and result in delayed or missed diagnoses. The patients presented in this paper emphasize the importance of enzymatic and molecular testing.