Integrative toxicoproteomics implicates impaired mitochondrial glutathione import as an off-target effect of troglitazone

J Proteome Res. 2013 Jun 7;12(6):2933-45. doi: 10.1021/pr400219s. Epub 2013 May 28.


Troglitazone, a first-generation thiazolidinedione of antihyperglycaemic properties, was withdrawn from the market due to unacceptable idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. Despite intensive research, the underlying mechanism of troglitazone-induced liver toxicity remains unknown. Here we report the use of the Sod2(+/-) mouse model of silent mitochondrial oxidative-stress-based and quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics to track the mitochondrial proteome changes induced by physiologically relevant troglitazone doses. By quantitative untargeted proteomics, we first globally profiled the Sod2(+/-) hepatic mitochondria proteome and found perturbations including GSH metabolism that enhanced the toxicity of the normally nontoxic troglitazone. Short- and long-term troglitazone administration in Sod2(+/-) mouse led to a mitochondrial proteome shift from an early compensatory response to an eventual phase of intolerable oxidative stress, due to decreased mitochondrial glutathione (mGSH) import protein, decreased dicarboxylate ion carrier (DIC), and the specific activation of ASK1-JNK and FOXO3a with prolonged troglitazone exposure. Furthermore, mapping of the detected proteins onto mouse specific protein-centered networks revealed lipid-associated proteins as contributors to overt mitochondrial and liver injury when under prolonged exposure to the lipid-normalizing troglitazone. By integrative toxicoproteomics, we demonstrated a powerful systems approach in identifying the collapse of specific fragile nodes and activation of crucial proteome reconfiguration regulators when targeted by an exogenous toxicant.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chromans / toxicity*
  • Dicarboxylic Acid Transporters / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Dicarboxylic Acid Transporters / genetics
  • Dicarboxylic Acid Transporters / metabolism
  • Female
  • Forkhead Box Protein O3
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors / agonists
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • Glutathione / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / toxicity*
  • Ion Transport / drug effects
  • MAP Kinase Kinase 4 / genetics
  • MAP Kinase Kinase 4 / metabolism
  • MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 5 / genetics
  • MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 5 / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Mitochondria / drug effects*
  • Mitochondria / genetics
  • Mitochondria / metabolism
  • Mitochondrial Proteins / genetics*
  • Mitochondrial Proteins / metabolism
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Proteomics*
  • Signal Transduction
  • Superoxide Dismutase / deficiency
  • Superoxide Dismutase / genetics
  • Thiazolidinediones / toxicity*
  • Troglitazone


  • Chromans
  • Dicarboxylic Acid Transporters
  • Forkhead Box Protein O3
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • FoxO3 protein, mouse
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Mitochondrial Proteins
  • Thiazolidinediones
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • superoxide dismutase 2
  • MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 5
  • Map3k5 protein, mouse
  • MAP Kinase Kinase 4
  • Glutathione
  • Troglitazone