Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have been proposed as a possible model organism for nutritional physiology. However, this potential has not yet been realized and studies on the field remain scarce. In this work, we investigated in this species the effect of a single meal as well as that of an increase in the ratio of dietary carbohydrates/proteins on the postprandial expression of several hepatic and muscle metabolism-related genes and proteins. Fish were fed once either a commercial diet (experiment 1) or one of two experimental diets (experiment 2) containing different protein and carbohydrate levels after 72 h of starvation. Refeeding induced the postprandial expression of genes of glycolysis (GK, HK1) and lipogenesis (FAS, G6PDH, ACCa) and inhibited those of gluconeogenesis (cPEPCK) and beta-oxidation (CPT1b) in the viscera. In the muscle, refeeding increased transcript levels of myogenesis (Myf5, Myogenin), inhibited those of Ub-proteasomal proteolytic system (Atrogin1, Murf1a, Murf1b), and induced the activation of key signaling factors of protein synthesis (Akt, 4EBP1, S6K1, S6). However, diet composition had a low impact on the studied factors. Together, these results highlight some specificity of the zebrafish metabolism and demonstrate the interest and the limits of this species as a model organism for nutritional physiology studies.