Inhibitory effects of isoflavones on tumor growth and cachexia in newly established cachectic mouse models carrying human stomach cancers

Nutr Cancer. 2013;65(4):578-89. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2013.776089.


Cachexia, a negative prognostic factor, worsens a patient's quality of life. We established 2 novel cachexia models with the human stomach cancer cell line MKN-45, which was subcloned to produce potent cachexia-inducing cells by repeating the xenografts in immune-deficient mice. After subsequent xenografts, we isolated potent cachexia-inducing cells (MKN45cl85 and 85As2mLuc). Xenografts of MKN45cl85 cells in mice led to substantial weight loss and reduced adipose tissue and musculature volumes, whereas xenografts of 85As2mLuc cells resulted in highly metastatic and cachectic mice. Surgical removal of tumor tissues helped the mice regain body-weight in both mouse models. In vitro studies using these cells showed that isoflavones reduced their proliferation, implying that the isoflavones possess antiproliferative effects of these cancer cell lines. Isoflavone treatment on the models induced tumor cytostasis, attenuation of cachexia, and prolonged survival whereas discontinuation of the treatment resulted in progressive tumor growth and weight loss. The inhibitory effects of tumor growth and weight loss by isoflavones were graded as soy isoflavone aglycone AglyMax > daidzein > genistein. These results demonstrated that the 2 novel cachectic mouse models appear useful for analyzing the mechanism of cancer cachexia and monitoring the efficacy of anticachectic agents.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cachexia / drug therapy*
  • Cachexia / etiology
  • Cell Line, Tumor / drug effects
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Female
  • Genistein / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Isoflavones / pharmacology*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Neoplasms, Experimental / drug therapy
  • Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology
  • Stomach Neoplasms / complications
  • Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Stomach Neoplasms / mortality
  • Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • Stomach Neoplasms / surgery
  • Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
  • beta-Glucans / pharmacology


  • Isoflavones
  • beta-Glucans
  • soy isoflavone aglycone
  • daidzein
  • Genistein