Background: Fluorescein is widely used as a fluorescent tracer for many applications. Its capability to accumulate in cerebral areas with blood-brain barrier damage makes it an ideal dye for intraoperative visualization of malignant gliomas (MG). We report our preliminary experience in fluorescein-guided removal of grade IV gliomas using a dedicated filter on the surgical microscope.
Methods: In September 2011 we started a prospective phase II trial (FLUOGLIO) to evaluate the safety and obtain initial indications about the efficacy of fluorescein-guided surgery for MG. Patients with suspected MG amenable to complete resection of contrast-enhancing areas were eligible to participate in this study. This report is based on a preliminary analysis of the results of 12 patients with grade IV gliomas out of 15 consecutive cases (age range 48-72 years) enrolled since September 2011. Fluorescein was injected intravenously (i.v.) after intubation (5-10 mg/kg). The tumor was removed using a microsurgical technique and fluorescence visualization by BLU 400 or YELLOW 560 filters on a Pentero microscope (Carl Zeiss, Germany). The study was approved by our ethics committee and registered on the European Regulatory Authorities website (EudraCT no. 2011-002527-18).
Results: Histological analysis confirmed grade IV gliomas in 12/15 cases. Median preoperative tumor volume was 33.15 cm(3) (9.6-87.8 cm(3)). No adverse reaction related to the administration of fluorescein was registered. Contrast-enhanced tumor was completely removed in 75 % of the patients.
Conclusion: This preliminary analysis suggested that the use of intravenous fluorescein during surgery on grade IV gliomas is safe and allows a high rate of complete resection of contrast-enhanced tumor at the early postoperative MRI.