The effectiveness of artificial intelligent 3-D virtual reality vocational problem-solving training in enhancing employment opportunities for people with traumatic brain injury

Brain Inj. 2013;27(9):1016-25. doi: 10.3109/02699052.2013.794969. Epub 2013 May 10.


Background: People with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often experience cognitive deficits in attention, memory, executive functioning and problem-solving. The purpose of the present research study was to examine the effectiveness of an artificial intelligent virtual reality (VR)-based vocational problem-solving skill training programme designed to enhance employment opportunities for people with TBI.

Method: This was a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the effectiveness of the above programme with that of the conventional psycho-educational approach. Forty participants with mild (n = 20) or moderate (n = 20) brain injury were randomly assigned to each training programme. Comparisons of problem-solving skills were performed with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Tower of London Test and the Vocational Cognitive Rating Scale.

Results: Improvement in selective memory processes and perception of memory function were found. Across-group comparison showed that the VR group performed more favourably than the therapist-led one in terms of objective and subjective outcome measures and better vocational outcomes.

Conclusions: These results support the potential use of a VR-based approach in memory training in people with MCI. Further VR applications, limitations and future research are described.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Brain Injuries / epidemiology
  • Brain Injuries / psychology
  • Brain Injuries / rehabilitation*
  • China / epidemiology
  • Cognition Disorders / epidemiology
  • Cognition Disorders / psychology
  • Cognition Disorders / rehabilitation*
  • Employment*
  • Executive Function
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Problem Solving
  • Prospective Studies
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Rehabilitation, Vocational*
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy*