A population-based survey of the prevalence and types of glaucoma in central Iran: the Yazd eye study

Ophthalmology. 2013 Oct;120(10):1977-84. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.02.029. Epub 2013 May 9.


Purpose: To describe the prevalence and types of glaucoma in Yazd, central Iran.

Design: Population-based, cross-sectional study.

Participants: Iranian adults aged 40 to 80 years, residing in Yazd, Iran, in 2010 and 2011.

Methods: Eligible samples were selected using cluster random sampling. Each participant underwent an interview and ophthalmologic examinations, including refraction, determination of uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, Goldmann applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, dilated fundus examination, central corneal thickness measurement, visual field testing, and stereoscopic fundus photography.

Main outcome measures: Prevalence of different types of glaucoma.

Results: Of 2320 eligible individuals, 2098 (response rate, 90.4%) participated in the study and 1990 completed all evaluations for glaucoma diagnosis. Overall, 47 persons (2.4%) were categorized with ocular hypertension, 32 persons (1.6%) were categorized with primary angle-closure suspect (PACS), and 16 persons (0.8%) were categorized with primary angle closure (PAC). The total number of subjects with glaucoma was 87 (4.4%; 95% confidence interval, 3.3-5.4), consisting of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, 3.2%, including high-tension glaucoma [1.7%] and normal-tension glaucoma [NTG], 1.5%]), primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG, 0.4%), pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (0.4%), and other secondary glaucomas (0.4%). The mean age of subjects with glaucoma was 63.3 ± 11 years, and 57.5% of them were female. Seventy-eight individuals (89.7%) were unaware of their disease. Positive family history of glaucoma was present in 6.9% of glaucoma subjects.

Conclusions: The prevalence of glaucoma in Yazd (4.4%) is comparable to that in other population-based studies in Asia, with POAG accounting for the majority of cases. Most affected subjects were unaware of their disease.

Financial disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Glaucoma / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Iran / epidemiology
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence