Gay men seeking surrogacy to achieve parenthood

Reprod Biomed Online. 2013 Sep;27(3):271-9. doi: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2013.03.016. Epub 2013 Apr 6.


Assisted reproduction technologies have developed at an extraordinary rate in recent years. This, combined with the changing landscape of legal, technical and social possibilities, enables gay men to consider their options for fatherhood as new opportunities emerge for them to create families. Media coverage of gay celebrities embracing surrogacy as a way of having a family and high-profile legal cases have raised awareness of surrogacy across the world. However, gay fatherhood achieved through assisted reproduction is a highly under-researched area, both in the UK and internationally. The research that currently exists on gay fatherhood is largely related to gay men who become parents through processes such as adoption and fostering and children conceived through previous heterosexual relationships. Much of this evidence has centred on parenting experiences, the outcomes for children or the legal perspectives. This paper outlines the different types of surrogacy and the legal issues facing gay men who choose this route to parenthood, summarizes the limited research on gay men and surrogacy and discusses gaps in the current knowledge base.

Keywords: assisted reproduction technology; gay fathers; gay parenting; gender roles; surrogacy.

MeSH terms

  • Homosexuality, Male*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Parenting / psychology*
  • Reproductive Techniques, Assisted / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Reproductive Techniques, Assisted / psychology*
  • Surrogate Mothers / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Surrogate Mothers / psychology