Coordinated function of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system in vertebrates is essential to promote protective immunity and to avoid immunopathology. The Notch signalling pathway, which was originally identified as a pleiotropic mediator of cell fate in invertebrates, has recently emerged as an important regulator of immune cell development and function. Notch was initially shown to be a key determinant of cell-lineage commitment in developing lymphocytes, but it is now known to control the homeostasis of several innate cell populations. Moreover, the roles of Notch in adaptive immunity have expanded to include the regulation of T cell differentiation and function. The aim of this Review is to summarize the current status of immune regulation by Notch. A better understanding of Notch function in both innate and adaptive immunity will hopefully provide multiple avenues for therapeutic intervention in disease.