The performance of implantable biomedical devices is impeded by the foreign-body reaction, which results in formation of a dense collagenous capsule that blocks mass transport and/or electric communication between the implant and the body. No known materials or coatings can completely prevent capsule formation. Here we demonstrate that ultra-low-fouling zwitterionic hydrogels can resist the formation of a capsule for at least 3 months after subcutaneous implantation in mice. Zwitterionic hydrogels also promote angiogenesis in surrounding tissue, perhaps owing to the presence of macrophages exhibiting phenotypes associated with anti-inflammatory, pro-healing functions. Thus, zwitterionic hydrogels may be useful in a broad range of applications, including generation of biocompatible implantable medical devices and tissue scaffolds.